Story: International humanitarian law (IHL) Day; 22-05-2022;
August 12, Marks International humanitarian law (IHL) Day, but what is it and why we observe it?
• The Geneva Convention of 1949 was established due to the horrific after war consequences, that came out of the Italy war, which were seen by Henry Dunant.
• The Red Cross and Geneva conventions born with the help of attempts of Henry Dunant when he witnessed the devastating consequences of the war at a battlefield in Italy.
• Dunant argued successfully for the creation of a civil relief corpse to respond to human suffering during conflicts around the world, and rules and limits of the war to be drawn.
What is IHL:
Protecting the vulnerable in war, International Humanitarian Law (IHL) is a set of rules that seek for humanitarian reasons to limit the effects of armed conflict.
IHL protects persons who are no longer participating in conflict or in hostilities, it restricts the means and methods of warfare. IHL is also known as the law of war and the law of armed conflict.
How IHL came into existance:
International Humanitarian Law was found on the principle of humanity impartiality and neutrality, its roots extended to such historic concepts of justice as Babylon's Hammurabic code, the code of Justinian, Byzantine Empire and the Lieber code used during the US civil war.
The development of modern international humanitarian law is credited to the efforts of 19th century Swiss businessman Henry Dunant .
In 1959 Dunant witnessed catastrophic consequences of war in Italy, the departing armies left the battlefield littered with wounded and dying man, despite Dunant's valiant efforts to mobilize and aid for the soldiers, thousands of them died.
Later he proposed a plan to train volunteer relief groups to provide humanitarian relief to those effected by war and conflicts like treatment of wounded or ill people in the war zone, while these groups be granted protection during war.
Initially a group known as the committee of five which later became the international committee of the Red Cross, formed in Geneva in 1963 to act on Dunant's suggestions.
Dunant also suggested a formal agreement between nations for the relief of the wounded.
Months later, diplomats from 16 nations assisted by a committee as well as representatives of military, medical services and Humanitarian societies, negotiated a convention (treaty), specifying that ambulance, military hospitals and personnel serving with them to be recognized as neutral and protected during conflict.
Including: Citizens who assist the wounded also to be protected, Wounded or sick competence to be collected and cared for by either side in a conflict.
• The symbol of Red Cross on a white background (reverse of the Swiss flag, in honour of the origin of this initiative), will serve as a protective emblem to identify medical personnel equipment and facilities.
• Known as the Geneva convention, this agreement became the foundation of modern international- theory and law, which now encompasses four conventions and three additional protocols collectively. They are present modern efforts to protect people in times of armed conflict.
A major part of international humanitarian law is contained, in the four Geneva conventions in 1949, that has been adopted by all nations in the world.
The convention have been expanded and supplemented by two further agreements the additional protocol of 1977 relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, and the 2005 additional protocol III, relating to the adoption of an additional distinctive emblem.
These conventions provide specific rules to safeguard competence of all members of the armed forces who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked prisoners of war, civilians as well as medical personnel, military chaplains and civilian to support workers of the military.
Summary of the Geneva Conventions of 1949;