Story: How Geneva Convention was made; 22-05-2022;
Summary of the Geneva Conventions of 1949;
A major part of international humanitarian law is contained, in the four Geneva conventions in 1949, that has been adopted by all nations in the world.
The convention have been expanded and supplemented by two further agreements the additional protocol of 1977 relating to the protection of victims of armed conflict, and the 2005 additional protocol III, relating to the adoption of an additional distinctive emblem.
These conventions provide specific rules to safeguard competence of all members of the armed forces who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked prisoners of war, civilians as well as medical personnel, military chaplains and civilian to support workers of the military.
The Geneva convention of 1949 and additional protocols:
• The four new conventions, comprising- 429 articles of law, known as the Geneva convention of August 12, 1949.
• The regional protocols of 1977 and 2005 supplements the Geneva convention.
• Applies in all cases of declared war or in any other armed conflict between nations.
• They also apply in cases where a nation is partially or totally occupied by soldiers of another nation, even when there is no arm resistance to that occupation.
• Nations that certified in the Geneva convention must abide by certain rules and military restrictions, in principle, and impose legal sanctions against those who violate them.
• Ratifying nations must “Enact any legislation necessary to provide effective panel sanctions for persons committing or ordering to be committed any of the grave breach (violations)” of the convention!
The First Geneva Convention:
The first Geneva convention protected soldiers who were out of the battle, the 10 article of the original 1864 version of the convention have been expanded, in the first Geneva convention of 1949, to 64 articles.
These Articles protects the wounded and sick soldiers, medical personnel, facilities and equipment, wounded civilians, support personnel, civilians who spontaneously take up arms to repeal an invasion.
Some notable Articles and their brief provisions are:
Article 9 states:
The convention, like the others, recognizes the right of the ICRC, to assist the wounded and sick. Local civilians may be asked to care for the wounded and sick.
Article 12 says:
The dead and sick shall be respected and protected without discrimination on the basis of sex, race, nationality, religion, political beliefs or other criteria.
Article 12 also says, the wounded and sick shall not be murdered, exterminated or subjected to torture or biological experiments.
The wounded and sick shall receive adequate care, the wounded, and sick shall be protected against ill-treatment.
While the article 15-16, says all parties in the conflict must search for and collect the wounded and sick specially after battle and provide the information concerning them, to the central tracking and protection agency of the international committee of the Red Cross (ICRC.)
Second Geneva Convention:
Second Geneva Convention was established for the amelioration of the condition of wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea, on August 12, 1949.
The second Geneva convention adopts the protection of the first Geneva convention to reflect conditions at the sea, especially for the sea.
The protection of wounded and sick combat competent on board, on ship or at sea, it's 63 articles apply to the following:
Armed forces members, wounded, sick or shipwrecked, Hospital ships and medical personnel, civilians who accompanied the armed forces, specific provisions: Article 12-18:
The convention mandates that parties in battle take all possible measures to search for collecting care for the wounded sick and shipwrecked (refers to anyone who is adrift of for any reason, including those forced to land at sea or to parachute from damaged aircraft).
While a warship cannot capture a hospital ship, medical staff, it can hold the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked as prisoners of war, providing they can be safely moved and that the warship has the facilities to care for them.
Article 21: Appeals can be made to neutral vessels including merchant ships and yards to provide to help collect and care for the wounded sick and shipwrecked those who agree to health cannot be captured as long as they remain neutral.
Article 22: stats, hospital ship cannot be used for any military purpose, they cannot be attacked or captured.
The Third Geneva convention:
The third Geneva convention was related to treatment of prisoners of war of August 12, 1949:
The third convention sets out specific rules for the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs).
The convention's 143 articles required that POWs be treated, mentally, humanly adequately housed, and receive sufficient food, clothing and medical care, its provisions also established guidelines on labour discipline, recreation and criminal trials.
Note that prisoners of war may include the following-Members of armed forces, volunteer militia including resistance forces or movements, civilians accompanying the armed forces.
The convention's specific provisions includes article 13-14 and 16, prisoners of war must not be subjected to torture or medical experimentation, and must be protected against act of violence.
Article 17 states, POWs are required to provide to their captors only their name or rank date of birth and military service number.
Article 23 says, female POWs must be treated with the regard, due to their sex.
Article 25-27 and 30: Captors must not engage in discrimination or discriminate on the basis of race national, nationality religious belief political opinion or other criteria.
Article 50 and 54 states that prisoners of war must be housed in a clean adequate shelter and receive food clothing and medical care necessary to maintain good health.
They must not be hold in combat areas where they are exposed to fire, nor can be they can be used to shield areas from military operations.
They may be required to do non-military jobs under reasonable working condition when paid at a fair rate, while article 70-72 and article 123 states name of prisoners must be sent immediately to the central pricing agency of the ICRC.
POWs shall be allowed to correspond with their families and received relief packages.
Article 82-84 states, prisoners are subject to the laws of their captors and can be trialled by their captors in courts.
The captor shall ensure fairness, impartiality and competent advocate for the prisoner.
Article 189 and 110 says seriously ill POWs must be return to home.
Article 180 says when the conflict ends the POWs shall be released and if they request, then they shall be sent home without delay.
Article 18-25 says, the ICRC is granted special rights to carry out humanitarian activities on According to the article 125, the ICRC or other impartial humanitarian relief organisations, authorised by parties to the conflict must be permitted to visit with prisoners privately, examine conditions and that convention's standards are being met and distribute relief supplies.
The Fourth Geneva convention:
Fourth and final Geneva convention gives protection to civilian prisoners in the times of war of August 12, 1949:
Civilians in areas of arm conflict and occupied territories are protected by these 159 articles of the fourth Geneva convention.
Some specific provisions include article 13 and 32:
Civilians are to be protected from murder, torture or brutality, and from discrimination on the basis of race, religion, nationality, or political opinion. Article 14 says Hospital and safety zone's may be established for the sick, aged, children under 15, expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven.
Article 24 and 25 says, Convention provides the care of the children who were orphans or separated from the family, the ICRC is central tracking and protection agency and is also authorized to transmit family news and assist with family review unification, reunification with the help of Red Cross and red Rose, red Crescent national societies, Red Cross and red Crescent national societies.
Article 27, says the safety, honour, family, rights, religious practises, manners and customs of civilians are protected.
Article 40 states, civilians cannot be forced to do military related work for an occupying force. Article 54 says, they had to be paid fairly for any assigned work.
Article 55 says, occupying powers are to provide food and medical supplies as necessary to the population and maintain medical and public health facilities. Article 55 and 58 says medical supplies and object used for religious worship are to be allowed.
Article 60 says, public officials will be permitted to continue their duties, laws of the occupied territory will remain in force, unless they present a security threat.
Above these four conventions there are many other protocols added to this Geneva convention of 1949, in 1977, two protocol supplementary to the Geneva convention were adopted by an international domestic and diplomatic conference to give greater protection to the victims of both international and internal conflict.
As of 2020 and 2010, 170 nations have rectified protocol, and 165 have rectified protocol second, nation that has ratified the Geneva convention but not the protocols are still bound by all provisions of the convention.
In additional to Geneva convention, adoption of the additional distinctive emblem in December 2005, three additional protocol to Geneva convention was adopted that provides for another distinctive Emblem the red Crystal, the red crystal is an optional emblem equal in status to Red Cross, Red Crescent and Red shield of David.
A universal symbol of protection easily recognised on the battlefield in order to origin of the initiative the symbol of Red Cross white background.
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